V.H.G.-Cahiers

The Cahiers present results of animal-historical studies that are too lengthy to be included in Argos, the bulletin of the Dutch Veterinary Historical Society (V.H.G. – Veterinair Historisch Genootschap).   Individual copies of the Cahiers can be ordered from the V.H.G. at the link above, while abstracts of the first three volumes can be found here.

Cahier Nr. 1 (1997)

R. Strikwerda. [Cattle in the Dutch Paterfamilial literature. Veterinary folk medicine in the 18th century].

Abstracts in English and German

The aim of this study was to investigate the practice of veterinary folk medicine in The Netherlands in the time before scientific veterinary publications became available.

In view of the great economic importance of cattle, the study was limited to the diseases of this species.

To that end eight publications by Dutch authors (four of them anonymous, however) published between 1725 and 1802, and written for the use by farmers were analyzed. Three of these publications were completely or predominantly devoted to cattle diseases; the others deal as much with diseases of other domestic animals, especially horses. Their contents can be considered to reflect the tradition-based veterinary folk medicine of those days, in which gradually certain scientific concepts were taken up.

After a description of these source materials, the contents are summarized, page after page or chapter after chapter. For each ‘disease’ or condition the various prescriptions are given and notes are added as far as thought necessary.

The largest part of the publication consists of indexes. In the first all subjects [110 main items] are dealt with, mainly diseases and/or symptoms (together with their synonyms) and all the substances applied. Next to this alphabetic index the clinical items are categorized after organsystem and disease group. In the second index all [294] component parts of the prescriptions are arranged, classified after their vegetable, animal, organic-chemical, mineral or compounded nature. In the general discussion a frequency table is given, which shows the numbers of prescriptions in relation to the number of ingredients they consist of [p. 123].

In this general discussion some characteristics of the various writings are reviewed. All seem to be free of superstition or magic. As far as theoretical concepts come to light humoral pathological thinking probably can explain the fact that different symptoms are considered to belong to one disease, e.g. ‘gall disease’ assumed to have its origin in a disturbance of the bile. At the other hand many symptoms are considered as disease entities and prescriptions are given for each symptom separately. Of the recognizable diseases those of the digestive tract (particularly bloating) are prevalent. But neither foot-and-mouth disease, nor alimentary oesophageal obstruction are mentioned.

Although research into the original sources of the texts under investigation are not undertaken, a direct relationship of the texts of 1745 and 1762 with a prescription book of 1547 is mentioned. Also the same prescriptions, sometimes even in identical terms, were found in three other texts.

Most of the texts are unstructured and show great diversity of terminology. Only two, one anonymous [J.W.] and the other written by a well educated farmer [PONSE], are composed after a certain scheme. Especially the latter contains influences of scientific writings.

A search of the 294 substances used in the prescriptions in three authoritative pharmacotherapeutic works of the 20th century shows that 142 were still in use up to the middle of this century, be it for a narrower field of application, and that 91 of them about 1940 still had an officinal status. All of these 142 ingredients are listed in an appendix, and a second appendix presents all plants occuring in the texts, with their scientific names.

R. Strikwerda. [Das Rind in der niederländischen Hausväterliteratur.

Volkstierheilkunde im 18. Jahrhundert]

Zusammenfassung

Die Untersuchung galt volkstierheilkundiges Wissen in den Niederlanden in der Zeit wo eine wissenschafliche Veterinärliteratur noch kaum vorhanden war.

Wegen der grossen wirtschaflichen Bedeutung des Rindes hierzulande wurde die Untersuchung beschränkt auf Rinderkrankheiten.

Zu diesem Zweck wurden acht Publikationen analysiert, verfasst von niederländischen Schriftstellern (vier von ihnen waren übrigens Anonymi) und verlegt zwischen 1725 und 1802. Alle waren gezielt auf direkte Benützung von Vieh-Besitzern. Drei dieser Schriften sind vollständig, bzw. vorwiegend den Rinderkrankheiten gewidmet; die übrigen behandeln ebenfalls Krankheiten anderer Haustiere, besonders des Pferdes.

Die sich auf Traditionen stützende Volkstierheilkunde des 18. Jahrhunderts kann man in diesen Büchern zurückfinden, obwohl mittlerweile auch einiges Wissenschaftliches mit hineingenommen ist.

Nach einer Beschreibung des Quellenmaterials sind die Inhalte Seite für Seite, Kapittel für Kapittel zusammengefasst. Für jede ‘Krankheit’ oder Not wurden die verschiedenen Remedien (Rezepte) aufgezeichnet und, soweit erforderlich, kommentiert.

Die Register machen dem grössten Teil dieser Studie aus. Im ersten sind alle [110] (Haupt)themen, in erster Linie Krankheiten und deren Symptome (mit Synonimen) aufgeführt unter Angabe der vorgeschriebenen Heilmittel-Komponenten. Neben diesem alphabetischen Register sind die Krankheitsthemen systematisch (nach Organsystem, bzw. Krankheitsgruppe) erfasst. Im zweiten Register sind die Heimittel-Komponenten [294], unterteilt nach pflanzlichen, tierischen, organisch-chemischen, mineralischen und zusammengesetzten, aufgelistet. Die allgemeine Diskussion enthält eine Frequenztabelle, die die Menge der unterschiedlichen Rezepte in Zusammenhang mit der Zahl deren Ingredienzen zeigt [S. 123].

In dieser allgemeinen Diskussion werden einige Merkmale der verschiedenen Quellen übersehen. Es wird festgestellt dass sie frei sind von Aberglaube und Magie. Insofern theoretische Erwägungen überhaupt ans Licht treten, kann eine humoralpathologische Denkweise vielleicht erklären dass unterschiedliche Symptome betrachtet wurden zu einer bestimmten Krankheit (z.B. ‘Gallenkrankheit’) zu gehören. Anderseits wurden manche Symptome als Krankheits-Entitäten betrachtet und wurden für jede gesondert Arzneien vorgeschrieben. Von den erkennbaren Krankheiten treten die des Magen-Darm-Systems (besonders Blähsucht) in den Vordergrund. Aber entweder Maul- und Klauenseuche, noch Schlundverstopfung werden erwähnt.

Obwohl keine Quellenuntersuchung angestellt wurde, konnte eine enge Verbindung der Texte aus 1745 und 1762 mit einem Arzneibuch aus 1547 festgestellt werden. In drei der untersuchten Texte wurden grosse übereinstimmungen, sogar identische Rezepte aufgefunden.

Die meisten Texte sind ohne Struktur und terminologisch unregelmässig. Nur zwei, der eine anonym [J.W.], der andere geschrieben von einem gebildeten Bauer [PONSE], zeigen eine gewisse Komposition. Im letzteren lassen sich Einflüsse von wissenschaftlichem Schrifttum spüren.

Eine Aufsuchung der 294 Arznei-Ingredienzen in drei massgebenden pharmakotherapeutischen Werken aus dem 20. Jahrhundert ergab das 142 noch bis zur Mitte dieses Jahrhunderts angewandt wurden, sei es mit eingeschränkter Applikation, und dass 91 davon um 1940 noch offizinellen Status besassen. Alle diese 142 Ingredienzen sind in einem Anhang aufgelistet, wie auch alle genannte Pflanzen mit ihren wissenschaftlichen Namen.

Cahier Nr. 2 (1997)

A. Mathijsen (ed.) The origins of veterinary schools in Europe – a comparative view.

Report of a symposium held in Utrecht on May the 8th, 1996 on the occasion of the 175th anniversary of veterinary education in The Netherlands.

Presenters and Paper Titles

Contents:

M. Lapras (France). Lyon, the cradle of veterinary training and of veterinary sciences (p. 8-12)

B. Robert Kreiser (USA). “La cendrillon des sciences”: towards the professionalization of veterinary medicine in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century France (p. 13-24)

M.F. Brumme (Germany). The emergence of veterinary instruction in the German language area: a preliminary typological study (p. 25-42)

G. Liuzzo, A. Corradi and E. Cabassi (Italy). Cultural roots and socio-political climate of the Italian veterinary schools from their origins (1769) to the Italian unification (1861) (p. 43-48)

I. Katic (Denmark). Foundation of the Danish Veterinary School in Copenhagen in 1773 and a short history of its developments until 1851 (p. 49-53)

M. Castaño, J.M. Pérez Garcia and C. Ballesteros (Spain). The beginnings of the veterinary schools in Spain (p. 54-58)

S.K. Rudik (Ukraine). The beginnings of veterinary education in the Ukraine (p. 59-61)

A. Mathijsen (Netherlands). The incubation and the founding period of the Veterinary School in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1798-1821 (p. 62-69)

P. Leeflang (Netherlands). An attempt to summarize and to compare (p. 70-73)

Cahier Nr. 3 (1999)

A. Mathijsen (ed.) [Recollections of the emeriti professors Beijers, ten Thije and Seekles after interviews by prof.dr. S.R. Numans and dr. R. Schuursma].

Abstracts

* Interview with prof. dr. J.A. Beijers (1885-1971)

The years as a student and as an assistant at the Veterinary School; Setting up a veterinary practice in Raalte; Back to Utrecht; The latter days of the period of director Wirtz; Elevation of the School into a College; Incorporation of the Veterinary College in the University; Teaching staff; Contacts with the Medical Faculty; Time of depression; Working together with prof. Wester; Education and research; The War period; Appointments of new professors after 1945; Developments after the War; Female veterinarians.

* Interview with prof. J.H. ten Thije (1895-1981)

Appointment as prosector; The period as Veterinary College; Student days; Teaching staff; The Netherlands Veterinary Association in the period 1940-1945; Incorporation as a Faculty of the University; Contacts with the Medical Faculty; Impact of the depression in the 1930’s on the research; Colleagues and scientific contacts; Differences between student generations; The relationship professor-student; The Faculty and the veterinary world; The period 1940-1945; Appointments of new professors after 1945; Status of the scientific staff members; Influence of students on appointments of professors; Developments in the profession and in veterinary studies after 1965; The female veterinarian.

* Interview with prof.dr. L. Seekles (1897-1979)

Academic career; The first fifteen years; The members of the Faculty; The scientific staff; Contacts with university departments outside the Faculty; Working conditions; The gatherings at Wednesday-nights of the senior staff-members; The period ’40-’45; The aftermath of the war: the purging; Appointments; Activities outside the Faculty; Research and research assistants; Relations with the students; Relations with the University Board; Relations with the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Society; Foreign relations; Looking back since the superannuation in 1967.

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